Civil Rights Act of 1964
How the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Transformed Houston


Two current Houstonians describe the changes the city of Houston went through after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 2. Gene Locke, now a prominent lawyer in this city, explains that Houston would not be able to compete … Continue reading

Thurgood Marshall
Appointment to Supreme Court in 1967


Footage from 1967 of Thurgood Marshall’s appointment as the the first African-American Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall was confirmed by a Senate vote of 69–11 on August 30, 1967; in this video, members of the U.S. Senate give their feedback on the historic confirmation.

Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall: “Common Humanity’


Stephen Carter, former clerk of Justice Thurgood Marshall in 1980, shares a story on how Marshall would never say a negative thing about someone, including the segregationists that he effectively dedicated his legal career opposing. Carter describes a time when one particular segregationist lawyer’s name came up and instead of … Continue reading

Invasion of Normandy
WWII Vet: ‘When We Got to the Beach, There Was No Segregation’

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Charles Sprowl, a veteran who served as an army technician in the U.S. First Unit Special Brigade, landed on Omaha Beach on D-Day with his unit. He describes the camaraderie that was created when landing on the beaches of Normandy during World War II. Sprowl explains that there was no … Continue reading

American Civil Rights Movement
Lee Pfund on Jackie Robinson’s Legacy

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Lee Pfund, a pitcher on the Dodgers when Jackie Robinson joined the team, discusses Robinson’s legacy and sacrifice by joining the Dodgers. Pfund was one of Robinson’s few friends on the team, and often talked about their faith and family on long bus rides to play games. Jackie Robinson was … Continue reading

Martin Luther King Jr.
[Text] Dr. King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail

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I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. (Read the full text below.) April 16, 1963 My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement … Continue reading

Jackie Robinson
Start of Jackie Robinson’s House Committee on Un-American Activities Speech

Bob Sandberg

“…But it’s also true that some of the policies, of this Committee have become political issues. And so, naturally, I’ve had a great many messages come to me by wire, phone and letter, urging me not to show up at this hearing.” 7/18/49 “When the House Committee on Un-American Activities … Continue reading